Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für operations im Online-Wörterbuch hwasrl.eu ( Deutschwörterbuch). Übersetzung für 'head of operations' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. English German online dictionary Term Bank, translate words and terms with different pronunciation options. business operations Betriebslehre separable part .
Operations Deutsch Videotsm4 Guide für Anfänger
Although a large part of labor was employed in agriculture, artisans contributed to economic output and formed guilds.
The guild system, operating mainly between and , consisted of two types: Although guilds were regulated as to the quality of work performed, the resulting system was rather rigid, shoemakers , for example, were prohibited from tanning hides.
Services were also performed in the Middle Ages by servants. They provided service to the nobility for cooking, cleaning and entertainment.
Court jesters were service providers. The medieval army could also be considered a service since they defended the nobility.
The industrial revolution was facilitated by two elements: Division of labor has always been a feature from the beginning of civilization , the extent to which the division is carried out varied considerably depending on period and location.
Compared to the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery were characterized by a greater specialization in labor, one of the characteristics of growing European cities and trade.
It was in the late eighteenth century that Eli Whitney popularized the concept of interchangeability of parts when he manufactured 10, muskets.
Up to this point in the history of manufacturing, each product e. Interchangeability of parts allowed the mass production of parts independent of the final products in which they would be used.
In , Frederick Winslow Taylor introduced the stopwatch method for accurately measuring the time to perform each single task of a complicated job.
He developed the scientific study of productivity and identifying how to coordinate different tasks to eliminate wasting of time and increase the quality of work.
The next generation of scientific study occurred with the development of work sampling and predetermined motion time systems PMTS.
Work sampling is used to measure the random variable associated with the time of each task. PMTS allows the use of standard predetermined tables of the smallest body movements e.
PMTS has gained substantial importance due to the fact that it can predict work measurements without observing the actual work.
The Gilbreths took advantage of taking motion pictures at known time intervals while operators were performing the given task.
At the turn of the twentieth century, the services industries were already developed, but largely fragmented. In the U. Services were largely local in nature except for railroads and telegraph and owned by entrepreneurs and families.
The idea of the production line has been used multiple times in history prior to Henry Ford: Ransom Olds was the first to manufacture cars using the assembly line system, but Henry Ford developed the first auto assembly system where a car chassis was moved through the assembly line by a conveyor belt while workers added components to it until the car was completed.
During World War II, the growth of computing power led to further development of efficient manufacturing methods and the use of advanced mathematical and statistical tools.
This was supported by the development of academic programs in industrial and systems engineering disciplines, as well as fields of operations research and management science as multi-disciplinary fields of problem solving.
While systems engineering concentrated on the broad characteristics of the relationships between inputs and outputs of generic systems, operations researchers concentrated on solving specific and focused problems.
The synergy of operations research and systems engineering allowed for the realization of solving large scale and complex problems in the modern era.
Recently, the development of faster and smaller computers, intelligent systems , and the World Wide Web has opened new opportunities for operations, manufacturing, production, and service systems.
Before the First industrial revolution work was mainly done through two systems: In the domestic system merchants took materials to homes where artisans performed the necessary work, craft guilds on the other hand were associations of artisans which passed work from one shop to another, for example: The beginning of the industrial revolution is usually associated with 18th century English textile industry , with the invention of flying shuttle by John Kay in , the spinning jenny by James Hargreaves in , the water frame by Richard Arkwright in and the steam engine by James Watt in In at the Crystal Palace Exhibition the term American system of manufacturing was used to describe the new approach that was evolving in the United States of America which was based on two central features: The model T car was introduced in , however it was not until Ford implemented the assembly line concept, that his vision of making a popular car affordable by every middle-class American citizen would be realized.
The first factory in which Henry Ford used the concept of the assembly line was Highland Park , he characterized the system as follows:.
That is the real principle of our production, and conveyors are only one of many means to an end" . This became one the central ideas that led to mass production , one of the main elements of the Second Industrial Revolution , along with emergence of the electrical industry and petroleum industry.
The post-industrial economy was noted in by Daniel Bell. Since all sectors are highly interconnected, this did not reflect less importance for manufacturing, agriculture, and mining but just a shift in the type of economic activity.
Although productivity benefited considerably from technological inventions and division of labor, the problem of systematic measurement of performances and the calculation of these by the use of formulas remained somewhat unexplored until Frederick Taylor, whose early work focused on developing what he called a "differential piece-rate system"  and a series of experiments, measurements and formulas dealing with cutting metals  and manual labor.
One of the problems Taylor believed could be solved with this system, was the problem of soldiering: In Taylor published his "The Principles of Scientific Management",  in which he characterized scientific management also known as Taylorism as:.
Taylor is also credited for developing stopwatch time study, this combined with Frank and Lillian Gilbreth motion study gave way to time and motion study which is centered on the concepts of standard method and standard time.
Frank Gilbreth is also responsible for introducing the flow process chart in Also in Hugo Diemer published the first industrial engineering book: Factory Organization and Administration.
In Ford Whitman Harris published his "How many parts to make at once" in which he presented the idea of the economic order quantity model.
He described the problem as follows:. Experience has shown one manager a way to determine the economical size of lots" .
This paper inspired a large body of mathematical literature focusing on the problem of production planning and inventory control. In Walter Shewhart introduced the control chart through a technical memorandum while working at Bell Labs , central to his method was the distinction between common cause and special cause of variation.
In the s methods-time measurement MTM was developed by H. MTM was the first of a series of predetermined motion time systems , predetermined in the sense that estimates of time are not determined in loco but are derived from an industry standard.
This was explained by its originators in a book they published in called "Method-Time Measurement". Up to this point in history, optimization techniques were known for a very long time, from the simple methods employed by F.
Harris to the more elaborate techniques of the calculus of variations developed by Euler in or the multipliers employed by Lagrange in , and computers were slowly being developed, first as analog computers by Sir William Thomson and James Thomson moving to the eletromechanical computers of Konrad Zuse and During World War II however, the development of mathematical optimization went through a major boost with the development of the Colossus computer , the first electronic digital computer that was all programmable, and the possibility to computationally solve large linear programming problems, first by Kantorovich  in working for the Soviet government and latter on in with the simplex method of Dantzig.
These methods are known today as belonging to the field of operations research. From this point on a curious development took place: Toyota evolved a unique manufacturing system centered on two complementary notions: Meanwhile, in the sixties, a different approach was developed by George W.
Plossl and Oliver W. One of the key insights of this management system was the distinction between dependent demand and independent demand. Independent demand is demand which originates outside of the production system, therefore not directly controllable, and dependent demand is demand for components of final products, therefore subject to being directly controllable by management through the bill of materials , via product design.
Orlicky wrote "Materials Requirement Planning" in ,  the first hard cover book on the subject. Enterprise resource planning ERP is the modern software architecture, which addresses, besides production operations, distribution , accounting , human resources and procurement.
Dramatic changes were occurring in the service industries, as well. While modeled after manufacturing in the production of the food in the back-room, the service in the front-room was defined and oriented to the customer.
FedEx in provided the first overnight delivery of packages in the U. This was based on the innovative idea of flying all packages into the single airport in Memphis Tenn by midnight each day, resorting the packages for delivery to destinations and then flying them back out the next morning for delivery to numerous locations.
This concept of a fast package delivery system created a whole new industry, and eventually allowed fast delivery of online orders by Amazon and other retailers.
Walmart provided the first example of very low cost retailing through design of their stores and efficient management of their entire supply chain.
This was accomplished by adhering to their system of delivering the goods and the service to the customers at the lowest possible cost. The operations system included careful selection of merchandise, low cost sourcing, ownership of transportation, cross-docking, efficient location of stores and friendly home-town service to the customer.
Das Unternehmen hat es sich zur Aufgabe gemacht, weltweit die Versorgung von Patienten zu verbessern, die an lebensbedrohlichen Krankheiten leiden.
Das deutsche Team bietet hochwertigen Service und konzentriert sich auf den Produktvertrieb in Deutschland.
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